The Book of “Hebrews” Bible Study for the Hearty Boys by Warren Camp
Summary with Videos, Questions, and Answers

The “Hebrews” Epistle —
   “Summary, Closing Comments, and Questions”

by Warren Camp

From the beginning of this epistle or letter to Jewish Christians, we've been shown that many first-century Jews wavered in their faith, refusing to accept the good news they'd heard about Jesus. They were undervaluing their privileges in Christ while engaging in discouragement. Most importantly, numbers of them were in danger of giving up their faith (5:11–12); they'd started well (6:10) but didn't progress (6:11). The author of "Hebrews" attempted to lead them from an elementary knowledge to a mature grasp. So when many refused to see and believe that Jesus was Messiah, he exhorted them to be loyal to Christ, showing them Jesus' superiority.

Image of repeated word 'faith'

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of "faith" repetitions.

Wanting to keep these wavering Jewish believers in Christ from drifting back into their traditional ceremonies and rituals, they were urged to let go of everything and hold fast their faith and hope in the gospel. It happened that those strict Jewish Christians, who before believing in and following Jesus Christ, had devotedly followed the old covenant's rules, regulations, and rituals. They had difficulty giving up all of that for something brand new — Christ's new covenant. The author couldn't tolerate their old-covenant attraction, compliance, and behavior. He stressed throughout his letter to them that it was by faith alone that a person could be perfected and saved; one had to faithfully and fully put his or her trust in Jesus.

It's worth noting one fact above others: that within this letter, Jesus is prominent on every page! He's greater than prophets (1:1–3); angels (1:4–2:18); Moses (3:1–19); Joshua (4:1–16); and Aaron (5:1–10:18). The reason the author used these comparisons is that each held a place of great importance in rabbinical Judaism. Being the framework of Jewish worship, it had to be proved that some thing or some One "better" or "superior" had to appear, albeit as a great high priest, if followers were to transfer their allegiance to a new plan or covenant.

The Person of Christ is Superior (1:1–4:15)

In Rome, these Jewish Christians and a collection of Gentile believers struggled under Nero’s persecution. Many of the early Jewish believers in Jesus had been backsliding to the old ways by prioritizing and adhering to the practices, rites, and rituals of Judaism, in order to escape mounting persecution. Because some believers were considering moving back toward Mosaic Law, the writer showed these Jewish Christians that, although they faced suffering, they were certainly following a better way and ought to continue to make such life-changing efforts. This letter was written especially for them with that purpose.

Today, as our Great High Priest, Jesus is able to understand our needs because he is perfect Man. He's able to "empathize with our weaknesses" because he "has been tempted in every way, just as we are — yet he did not sin" (4:15). He's also able to meet all our needs because he is perfect God.

This letter effectively compares "the old covenant that God had made with the Jewish nation" with "the new covenant made with all people, through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus." How much better and more essential to Christian living, then and today, is the new covenant. Remember, this letter was written to correct the erroneous idea that Jewish believers in Jesus had lost some things because they'd adopted Christianity. This letter sought to remove that misconception. Christianity isn't "giving something up"; instead it's "receiving" the greatest gifts of life.

Warren Camp's custom Scripture of Hebrews 2:9

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In his old-versus-new comparison, the author starts by contrasting Jesus' superiority to angels, Moses, Melchizedek, the Law, the Aaronic priesthood, and many others. He basically argues that all of these individuals and instruments of the Old Testament and its practices point directly to Christ Jesus who fulfills them all, is greater than all of them, and casts his shadow on all of these great biblical figures. There's no doubt that Moses, Melchizedek, and Aaron were superb leaders; however, Jesus is far more significant and consequential because he's not simply one of God's servants, he's Father God's one and only Son.

In the days of Old Testament religious regulations and rituals, the high priest approached God on behalf of the people, praying for them and their needs. He offered up the peoples' animal sacrifices regularly in an attempt to cleanse the people from their wrong and sinful actions. But Jesus had become, and was seen by many, as a much-more effective, far superior high priest: the Great High Priest of all time (4:14–15).

Highly esteemed by the Israelites, the gold-covered ark of the [old] covenant was intentionally located inside the Most Holy Place of the earthly tabernacle's tent. The ark symbolized for them God's presence, power, and potential. However, that inner Holy of Holies chamber, which only the high priest could enter, and that only once a year and never without blood, was separated from the two other chambers (the Holy Place and the outer court), by a thick curtain or veil.

The existence of curtains in the Old Testament's earthly tabernacle, separating man from both holy places, was symbolic of how the old covenant represented barriers that kept the Israelites apart from God. This sets up a comparison (9:14–15), showing how Christ's sacrifice successfully performed true salvation, once for all, while it also achieved the perfection of our relationship with God. All three synoptic gospels report that, when Jesus died on the cross, the curtain of Jerusalem's temple — that barrier between the Holy Place and Most Holy Place — was supernaturally torn in two (see Matthew 27:51Mark 15:38; and Luke 23:45). That split curtain symbolized that, in "the new order," animals' blood would no longer be needed. Thankfully, a personal way to God had been openly revealed to everyone; today, God is available to all, through Christ's death.

Two Great Warnings  (Warning 1) Don't neglect the great salvation that is offered to us, not by angels, but by Lord Jesus; listen to what the Son has to tell you (2:1-4). (Warning 2) Don't turn away from the living God; make sure to have a believing heart while developing the habit of mutual encouragement (3:12–13).

The Priesthood of Christ is Superior (4:14–10:18)

"Now the main point of what we are saying is this: We do have such a high priest" (8:1a). Christ has been compared herein with many, but the most important comparison is with Aaron, the high priest. The writer demonstrated that the priesthood of Christ is superior to the priesthood of Levitical Law.

The central points of "Hebrews" are (1) Christ's eternal priesthood and (2) his sacrifice that provided forgiveness of the world's sin. This epistle dwells upon the supreme importance and power of Christ's blood in obtaining, once, for all, everyone's redemption. Clearly, the former Levitical priesthood was unable to bring things to perfection for the people: It couldn't justify their guilt, sanctify them from inward pollution, or cleanse worshipers' consciences from their sinful acts. And it was unable to draw man near to God. At best, it set boundaries that kept man from getting too close to God, otherwise dying as a result.

But Christ's priesthood introduced to the people a better hope built on a true foundation from God providing his complete pardon leading to our salvation; our new Great High Priest tends to work in us a stronger, more active hope in our acceptance of him. Through such hope we're warmly invited to get close and personally engage with Father God by entering and abiding into a covenant-union with him. He allowed Jesus to forfeit his life as the perfect sacrifice of all time. His death can make people completely clean in God's eyes.

Christ himself is a priest; he's also a Great High Priest forever, after the order of the eternal Melchizedek priesthood. Aaronic priests couldn't make people perfect because they themselves were sinful. But Christ is eternal and sinless. He isn't weak and full of failure, as the high priests had been. Nor does he grow old or ever die as they had. Christ Jesus remains alive forever! He's always ready and eager to help and strengthen his children. Having lived on earth for decades, he knows very well what it's like to be human. Her therefore remains gentile and sympathetic to us.

Warren Camp's custom Scripture of Hebrews 7:22

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Warren's Scripture Picture.

Note the epistle's focus on three great "betters" regarding what Great High Priest Jesus offers: (1) a better covenant (7:22; 8:13) because it's based on better oaths and promises, all of which are written on the heart, not on stone tablets (8:10); a better tabernacle (9:1–12) because, while the tabernacle tent was only earthly, and its high priest entered the Holy of Holies only once a year, Christ officiates in his heavenly sanctuary, "once for all"; and (3) a better sacrifice (10:18) because Jesus himself is that sacrifice, offering himself as an unblemished perfect sacrificial lamb, remembering our sins and lawless acts no more so that he fully and finally cleanses us.

So how can we effectively approach God today? Christ has made that possible by being our High Priest, our personal representative of God Almighty. Jesus has entered the heavenly sanctuary, sitting with God and bearing the blood of his own sacrifice to cleanse us from our sins and give us the gift of eternal salvation. His blood had to be shed because "without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness" (9:22). "But when this priest had offered for all time, one sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God" (10:12). When all of Jesus' redemptive work had been completed, on the cross he said, "It is finished" (John 19:30); immediately the earthly tabernacle's separation curtain or veil was torn open from top to bottom (Matt. 27:51), putting an end to that temple and its religious system.

In a sense, the veil was symbolic of Christ himself, being the only way to the Father (John 14:6 ESV). We see in Heb. 10:19–25 the image of Jesus’ flesh being torn for us, just as he'd torn the veil for us. The earthly tabernacle's items were shadows of things to come, all of which ultimately point us to Jesus Christ. He represented the veil to the Holy of Holies. Through his death the faithful have been given free access to God, with Christ being our superior High Priest in heaven. As believers in his finished work, we partake of his superior priesthood. Being personally invited by him to enter heaven's Holy of Holies through him, we're blessed to be able to approach him with confidence and boldness (4:14–16).

Right now, our Great High Priest sits at Father God's right hand, interceding on behalf of faithful believers (7:25; 8:1; 10:12). He's gone "to appear for us in God's presence" (9:24), enabling us to confidently enter the holiest of heaven's realms "by a new and living way opened for us through the curtain, that is, his body" (10:19–20). So, don't hesitate to avail yourself of this glorious privilege.

The Life in Christ is Superior (10:19–13:25)

The closing chapters of "Hebrews" present the kind of life we're to live, thanks to Christ's work for us as High Priest. We see that he's at Father God's right hand, living to continually intercede on our behalf. Chapter 11 lists many Old Testament heroes and heroines, all of whom had fully trusted Father God, despite the darkness and doom they faced. Many eagerly looked forward to receiving the rich rewards that God had in store for them. Christians today can now enjoy receiving God's rewards, so long as an active, working faith is maintained.

Thanks to these many exemplars of faith, we ought to feel confident, albeit compelled to follow Jesus wholeheartedly and enthusiastically. Let us "pay the most careful attention, therefore, to what we have heard, so that we do not drift away" (2:1). May we be stimulated to continually worship Christ Jesus intimately and devotedly. Allow this three-verse passage that immediately follows chapter 11's famous Hall of Faith account to be your daily motivation.

12 1Therefore, since we are surrounded by such a great cloud of witnesses, let us throw off everything that hinders and the sin that so easily entangles. And let us run with perseverance the race marked out for us, 2fixing our eyes on Jesus, the pioneer and perfecter of faith. For the joy set before him he endured the cross, scorning its shame, and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. 3Consider him who endured such opposition from sinners, so that you will not grow weary and lose heart (12:1–3).

There's nothing mysterious about "faith"; it's simply a willful act; we'll either believe in God or we won't. But when we decide to believe God absolutely, his supernatural power and life enter our lives. We're assured in 11:33–34 that, "through faith . . . weakness was turned to strength." The secret of Christian living is to faithfully allow Christ to strengthen us and meet our needs. "Faith" amounts to trusting God by believing in him wholeheartedly.

Warren Camp's custom Scripture picture of Hebrews 11:29

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Warren's Scripture Picture.

Warren Camp's custom Scripture picture of Hebrews Chapter 11's Hall of Faith Inductees

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this Hall of faith inductees list.

Are you now living and working as an inductee of the Hall of Faith?  To live amid Hall of Faith exemplars requires two things that chapter 12 highlights: (1) We must, like anyone entering a race, "throw off everything that hinders" by yielding everything to Christ — "surrender" (12:1); (2) we also must believe that Jesus is trustworthy, for when we "fix our eyes on Jesus," we'll have given up the sin of unbelief that so easily oppresses us (v. 2). To succeed in both efforts, we must have patience, endure discipline (v. 11), live as a peacemaker to everyone (v. 14), and always see Jesus as the Perfecter of our faith (v. 2).

For our lives to be well-pleasing in the Lord's sight, we must fix our eyes on him, work faithfully for him, and become a Hall of Faith witness of him. In closing, please accept this faith-filled benediction. . .

20Now may the God of peace, who through the blood of the eternal covenant brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep, 21equip you with everything good for doing his will, and may he work in us what is pleasing to him, through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen (12:20–21).




It Makes You Wonder . . .
  • Q. 1   What do you learn about faith when you read Moses' examples highlighted in vv. 24–28?
  • Q. 2   What physical, emotional, psychological price was paid to achieve the great results presented in vv. 29–30?
  • Q. 3   How has your life changed as a result of your faith in God?



This Week’s Passage
Hebrews 11:20–31

New International Version (NIV) or view it in a different version by clicking here.
Listen to chapter 11, narrated by Max McLean.





Sep·tu·a·gint
/ˈsepto͞oəˌjint/

singular proper noun: Septuagint

a Greek version of the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament), including the Apocrypha, made for Greek-speaking Jews in Egypt in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC and adopted by the early Christian Churches.

Yahweh was the god of the Israelites, whose name was revealed to Moses as four Hebrew consonants (YHWH) called the tetragrammaton.

The English language doesn’t have an exact translation of the word “Yahweh,” so in our Old Testament we see it written as “LORD” in all capital letters.

In Jewish tradition, “Yahweh” is too sacred a name to utter out loud. Over time, Jews started to substitute in “Adonai” or “My LORD,” especially when speaking. Another common replacement is the name “Elohim,” which simply means “God.”
For he was looking forward to the city with foundations, whose architect and builder is God.

— Hebrews 11:10
All these people were still living by faith when they died. They did not receive the things promised; they only saw them and welcomed them from a distance, admitting that they were foreigners and strangers on earth.

— Hebrews 11:13
But God said to him, “Do not be so distressed about the boy and your slave woman. Listen to whatever Sarah tells you, because it is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.

— Genesis 21:12
Gen. 27:27–29
And Joseph made the Israelites swear an oath and said, “God will surely come to your aid, and then you must carry my bones up from this place.”

— Genesis 50:25
18So God led the people around by the desert road toward the Red Sea. The Israelites went up out of Egypt ready for battle.

19Moses took the bones of Joseph with him because Joseph had made the Israelites swear an oath. He had said, “God will surely come to your aid, and then you must carry my bones up with you from this place.”

— Exodus 13:18–19

Scripture Picture of Hebrews 11:29 was designed, created, custom-framed, and styled by Warren Camp.

Scripture picture of Hebrews 11:29, emphasizing the Israelites' faith at the Red Sea

Painting artist: Sharon de Neveu in California

Copyright 2020–2021, all rights reserved.

Note: You may save, print, and share Warren's custom Scripture Picture for personal use only!

Warning Against Falling Away

11We have much to say about this, but it is hard to make it clear to you because you no longer try to understand. 12In fact, though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you the elementary truths of God’s word all over again. You need milk, not solid food!

— Hebrews 5:11–12
God is not unjust; he will not forget your work and the love you have shown him as you have helped his people and continue to help them.

— Hebrews 6:10
We want each of you to show this same diligence to the very end, so that what you hope for may be fully realized.

— Hebrews 6:11
Jesus the Great High Priest

14Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has ascended into heaven, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold firmly to the faith we profess. 15For we do not have a high priest who is unable to empathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are — yet he did not sin.

— Hebrews 4:14–15
At that moment the curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth shook, the rocks split . . .

— Matthew 27:51
The curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.

— Mark 15:38
. . . for the sun stopped shining. And the curtain of the temple was torn in two.

— Luke 23:45
Warning to Pay Attention

2 1We must pay the most careful attention, therefore, to what we have heard, so that we do not drift away. 2For since the message spoken through angels was binding, and every violation and disobedience received its just punishment, 3how shall we escape if we ignore so great a salvation? This salvation, which was first announced by the Lord, was confirmed to us by those who heard him. 4God also testified to it by signs, wonders and various miracles, and by gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will.

— Hebrews 2:1–4
12See to it, brothers and sisters, that none of you has a sinful, unbelieving heart that turns away from the living God. 13But encourage one another daily, as long as it is called “Today,” so that none of you may be hardened by sin’s deceitfulness.

— Hebrews 3:12–13
By calling this covenant “new,” he has made the first one obsolete; and what is obsolete and outdated will soon disappear.

— Hebrews 8:13
This is the covenant I will establish with the people of Israel
    after that time, declares the Lord.
I will put my laws in their minds
    and write them on their hearts.
I will be their God,
    and they will be my people.

— Hebrews 8:10
And where these have been forgiven, sacrifice for sin is no longer necessary.

— Hebrews 10:18
When he had received the drink, Jesus said, “It is finished.” With that, he bowed his head and gave up his spirit.

— John 19:30
A Call to Persevere in Faith

19Therefore, brothers and sisters, since we have confidence to enter the Most Holy Place by the blood of Jesus, 20by a new and living way opened for us through the curtain, that is, his body, 21and since we have a great priest over the house of God, 22let us draw near to God with a sincere heart and with the full assurance that faith brings, having our hearts sprinkled to cleanse us from a guilty conscience and having our bodies washed with pure water. 23Let us hold unswervingly to the hope we profess, for he who promised is faithful. 24And let us consider how we may spur one another on toward love and good deeds, 25not giving up meeting together, as some are in the habit of doing, but encouraging one another — and all the more as you see the Day approaching.

— Hebrews 10:19–25
Jesus the Great High Priest

14Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has ascended into heaven, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold firmly to the faith we profess. 15For we do not have a high priest who is unable to empathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are — yet he did not sin. 16Let us then approach God’s throne of grace with confidence, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help us in our time of need.

— Hebrews 4:14–16
Therefore he is able to save forever those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them.

— Hebrews 7:25
The High Priest of a New Covenant

8 1Now the main point of what we are saying is this: We do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, . . .

— Hebrews 8:1
But when this priest had offered for all time one sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God, . . .

— Hebrews 10:12

Picture of all of chapter 11's "Hall of Faith" inductees was designed, created, custom-framed, and styled by Warren Camp.

Scripture picture of all those inducted into chapter 11's 'Hall of Faith'

Photo by Greg Rakozy from Unsplash on https://unsplash.com/@grakozy

Copyright 2020–2021, all rights reserved.

Note: You may save, print, and share Warren's custom Scripture Picture for personal use only!

Because of this oath, Jesus has become the guarantor of a better covenant.

— Hebrews 7:22

Scripture Picture of Hebrews 7:22 was designed, created, custom-framed, and styled by Warren Camp.

Scripture picture of Hebrews 7:22, emphasizing the fact that Jesus has become the guarantor of a better covenant

Painting artist: Sharon de Neveu in California

Copyright 2020–2021, all rights reserved.

Note: You may save, print, and share Warren's custom Scripture Picture for personal use only!

Scripture Picture of Hebrews 2:9 was designed, created, custom-framed, and styled by Warren Camp.

Scripture picture of Hebrews 2:9, emphasizing the fact that Jesus is now crowned with glory and honor

Painting artist: Sharon de Neveu in California

Copyright 2020–2021, all rights reserved.

Note: You may save, print, and share Warren's custom Scripture Picture for personal use only!

Key Words Repeated in"Hebrews"


faith” or “faithful (used 38 times in the NIV)

2:17     For this reason he had to be made like them, fully human in every way, in order that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God, and that he might make atonement for the sins of the people.

3:2     He was faithful to the one who appointed him, just as Moses was faithful in all God’s house.

3:5     “Moses was faithful as a servant in all God’s house,” bearing witness to what would be spoken by God in the future.

3:6     But Christ is faithful as the Son over God’s house. And we are his house, if indeed we hold firmly to our confidence and the hope in which we glory.

4:2     For we also have had the good news proclaimed to us, just as they did; but the message they heard was of no value to them, because they did not share the faith of those who obeyed.

4:14     Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has ascended into heaven, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold firmly to the faith we profess.

6:1     Therefore let us move beyond the elementary teachings about Christ and be taken forward to maturity, not laying again the foundation of repentance from acts that lead to death, and of faith in God, . . .

6:12     We do not want you to become lazy, but to imitate those who through faith and patience inherit what has been promised.

8:9     It will not be like the covenant I made with their ancestors when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they did not remain faithful to my covenant, and I turned away from them, declares the Lord.

10:23     Let us hold unswervingly to the hope we profess, for he who promised is faithful.

10:38     And, “But my righteous one will live by faith. And I take no pleasure in the one who shrinks back.”

10:39     But we do not belong to those who shrink back and are destroyed, but to those who have faith and are saved.

11:1     Now faith is confidence in what we hope for and assurance about what we do not see.

11:3     By faith we understand that the universe was formed at God’s command, so that what is seen was not made out of what was visible.

11:4     By faith Abel brought God a better offering than Cain did. By faith he was commended as righteous, when God spoke well of his offerings. And by faith Abel still speaks, even though he is dead.

11:5     By faith Enoch was taken from this life, so that he did not experience death: “He could not be found, because God had taken him away.” For before he was taken, he was commended as one who pleased God.

11:6     And without faith it is impossible to please God, because anyone who comes to him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who earnestly seek him.

11:7     By faith Noah, when warned about things not yet seen, in holy fear built an ark to save his family. By his faith he condemned the world and became heir of the righteousness that is in keeping with faith.

11:8     By faith Abraham, when called to go to a place he would later receive as his inheritance, obeyed and went, even though he did not know where he was going.

11:9     By faith he made his home in the promised land like a stranger in a foreign country; he lived in tents, as did Isaac and Jacob, who were heirs with him of the same promise.

11:11     And by faith even Sarah, who was past childbearing age, was enabled to bear children because she considered him faithful who had made the promise.

11:13     All these people were still living by faith when they died. They did not receive the things promised; they only saw them and welcomed them from a distance, admitting that they were foreigners and strangers on earth.

11:17     By faith Abraham, when God tested him, offered Isaac as a sacrifice. He who had embraced the promises was about to sacrifice his one and only son, . . .

11:28     By faith he kept the Passover and the application of blood, so that the destroyer of the firstborn would not touch the firstborn of Israel.