The Art World’s Historic Commemoration of Peter

Thumbnail image of Saint Peter

Warren Camp’s presentation of 500 famous “Peter” works of art includes examples of historic paintings, frescoes, stained glass, etchings, sculptures, engravings, and other artwork monuments. They come from the Gothic (1100–1400), High Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassicism, and Romanticism (1800s) eras.

All are popular works, designed and created by famous, notable artists, many of whom you’ll likely recognize, including Rembrandt, Raphael, Michelangelo, El Greco, da Vinci, Tissot, Botticelli, Dürer, Rubens, and many more. They’ll bring back recollections of your college “Art History 101” classes, using the H W Janson History of Art textbook.

Whether named “Cephas,” “Simon,” “Simeon,” “Simon Bar-Jonah,” “Simon Peter,” “The Rock,” “Peter,” “Apostle Peter,” or “Saint Peter,” the enlarged images of this acclaimed Bible figure come with factual and enlightening details: about the artist; when each work was created and where it can be seen; Bible-passage references applicable to depicted scenes; the background and unique highlights of each work; and photo sources with copyright notices.

To realize and appreciate the impact that Peter had on numerous art-world masters, be sure to enlarge each thumbnail image!

Album 1 (Peter, alone)  |  Album 2  |  Album 3  |  Album 4  |  Album 5
Album 6  |  Album 7  |  Album 8  |  Album 9  |  Album 10  |  Album 11
Album 12  |  Album 13  |  Album 14  |  Album 15  |  Album 16

Album topics are shown at the [ ⇓ bottom ⇓ ] of each page.

Christ’s Agony on the Mount of Olives

"Agony in the Garden"
'Agony in the Garden' painting by Raphael

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Raphael — c. 1504
oil on wood

"The Agony
in the Garden"
'The Agony in the Garden' painting by Andrea Mantegna

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Mantegna
1455–1456
tempera on wood

"Agony in the Garden"
'Agony in the Garden' painting by Giovanni Bellini

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Bellini — c. 1465
tempera

"Agony in the Garden"
'Agony in the Garden' painting by Pietro Perugino

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Perugino — 1483–1493 oil on panel

"The Garden of Gethsemane"
'The Garden of Gethsemane' painting by Georgio Vasari

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Vasari — c. 1570
oil on panel

"Christ on the
Mount of Olives"

'Christ on the Mount of Olives' painting by of Master of the Třeboň Altarpiece

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a Master — c. 1380
panel painting

"The Agony
in the Garden"
'Agony in the Garden' painting by El Greco

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El Greco — c. 1608
oil on canvas

“The Agony
in the Garden”
'Agony in the Garden' painting by Luis de Morales

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Morales — c. 1545
oil on panel

"Agony in the Garden"
'Agony in the Garden' drawing by Caspar Strauss

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Strauss — 1600–1633
pen-and-ink drawing

"Agony in the Garden"
'Agony in the Garden' painting by Andrea Mantegna

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Mantegna — 1457–1459
tempera on wood

"The Agony
in the Garden"
'The Agony in the Garden' painting by El Greco

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El Greco
c. 1590
oil on canvas

"Agony in the Garden"
'Agony in the Garden' undated woodcut by Albrecht Dürer

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Dürer — n. d.
woodcut on paper


“The Agony
in the Garden”
'Agony in the Garden' painting by an unknown artist

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unknown — c. 1460
tempera on parchment

"The Agony
in the Garden"
'The Agony in the Garden' painting by Simon Bening

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Bening — c. 1525–1530
tempera on parchment

"The Agony
in the Garden"
'The Agony in the Garden' painting by an unknown artist

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unknown — 1544
tempera on parchment


“Christ on the
Mount of Olives”
'Agony in the Garden' engraving by Albrecht Dürer

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Dürer — 1508
engraved print

"The Agony in the Garden"
'The Agony in the Garden' painting by Benvenuto di Giovanni

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Benvenuto di Giovanni
1491, tempera on poplar panel

"The Agony in the Garden"
'The Agony in the Garden' painting by the Nuremburg Master of the Altarpiece of the Virgin

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Nuremburg Master of the Altarpiece of the Virgin
1520–1530, mixed media on wood, then canvas

"You Could Not Watch
One Hour with Me"
'You Could Not Watch One Hour with Me' painting by James Tissot

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Tissot — 1886–1894
watercolor on paper

"Jesus Captured (Maestà)"
'Jesus Captured (Maestà)' painting by Duccio di Buoninsegna

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di Buoninsegna c. 1309
tempera on panel

"Prayer on the
Mount of Olives"

'Prayer on the Mount of Olives' painting by Duccio di Buoninsegna

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di Buoninsegna c. 1309
tempera on panel

"The Agony
in the Garden"

'Agony in the Garden' painting by Orazio Borgianni

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Borgianni — 1610
oil on canvas

"Jesus Christ on
the Mount of Olives"

'Christ on the Mount of Olives' painting by Caravaggio

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Caravaggio
c. 1605
oil on canvas

"The Agony
in the Garden"

'The Agony in the Garden' painting by Juan de Flandes

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de Flandes — c. 1515
oil on pine panel

"Christ on the
Mount of Olives"

'Christ on the Mount of Olives' painting by Jan Gossaert

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Gossaert — c. 1509
oil on oak wood

"The Agony
in the Garden"

'The Agony in the Garden' painting by Lo Spagna

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Lo Spagna
c. 1503
oil on wood

"The Agony in the Garden"
'The Agony in the Garden' painting by Stefano di Giovanni (il Sassetta)

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Stefano di Giovanni (il Sassetta)
1437-1444, tempera on poplar panel

"The Agony in the Garden"
'The Agony in the Garden' painting by Benvenuto Tisi

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Benvenuto Tisi (or Il Garofalo)
1524, oil painting on canvas

"The Agony
in the Garden"

'The Agony in the Garden' painting by Ludovico Carracci

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Carracci — c. 1590
oil on canvas

"Christ Praying
in the Garden"

'Christ Praying in the Garden' painting by Marco Basaiti

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Basaiti — 1510 or 1516
oil on panel

"The Agony
in the Garden"

'The Agony in the Garden' painting by Benvenuto Tisi

Click to enlarge.


Tisi — 1518–1541
oil painting

"The Agony
in the Garden"

'The Agony in the Garden' painting by the Master of the Friedrich Altar

Click to enlarge.


Friedrich Altar Master
c. 1440 painting


  • “The Agony in the Garden,” oil on wood, by Raphael, c. 1504

    Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio or Santi) (Italian, 1483–1520) “This panel was originally part of the base (predella panel) of the nearby Colonna altarpiece, one of three scenes focussing on Christ’s last days. Here, Christ prays prior to his arrest, while his disciples slumber around him. The small angel who proffers a chalice or cup is a visualization of Christ’s thoughts — ‘My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will’ (Matthew 26:39b) — as he slowly accepts his fate. Raphael depicts the scene in a delicate landscape, with each of the sleeping followers in a carefully observed pose.”[1]

    Raphael’s painting shows the kneeling figure of Christ, praying on the Mount of Olives, prior to his arrest and ensuing Passion. He’s accompanied by his apostles, (left to right) Peter, James, and John, all of whom — despite Christ’s repeated pleas — had fallen asleep. According to Luke’s gospel: “An angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him. And being in anguish, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground” (Luke 22:43–44).

    In the Garden of Gethsemane was an olive press, situated inside a grove of olive trees. Jesus, being “the anointed one,” was anointed with olive oils. To have been set apart as the King of Israel, he was to be anointed with holy olive oil. See and apprerciate the relevance and importance of the crushing of olives in this video. Raphael&rsquo's pen-and-ink drawibng of this scene can be seen here.

    … Height: 9 1/2 in. (24.1 cm), width: 11 3/8 in. (28.9 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: The Met; funds from various donors, 1932
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “Agony in the Garden,” tempera on wood, painted by Andrea Mantegna, 1458–1460

    Andrea Mantegna (1431–1506) “was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini.”[1] Bellini, is considered to have been inspired by this painting for his own rendering of Agony in the Garden, painted between 1460 and 1465 [highlighted in the next slide; both paintings are displayed, side by side, at the National Gallery, London. An alternate Agony in the Garden painting by Mantegna appears in twelve more slides.].

    “Christ prays before a group of cherubs who hold up the instruments of his torture and death. His disciple, Judas (right-center), who has betrayed him, leads a large band of soldiers down from Jerusalem to arrest him. Meanwhile, three of his other disciples sleep [Peter, left, wears a blue garment]. This painting reflects many of the artistic issues that would preoccupy Mantegna throughout his career. He was fascinated by the art of classical antiquity: the disciples here look like statues of Roman emperors in togas. One lies with his legs facing straight out at the viewer, a difficult pose to paint; Mantegna enjoyed experimenting with it for its ability to draw us into the picture.

    “Mantegna skilfully uses the landscape setting to tell the story in a single image; the march of the soldiers from the city gates creates drama and suggests the passage of time. He works with his favored fast-drying egg tempera paint (pigments bound with egg) to describe minute details like the individual bricks of the city walls.”[2] Mantegna painted a subsequent tempera-on-wood Agony in the Garden (1457–1459) rendition that you can see in eight more slides.

    … Height: 24.8 in. (62.9 cm), width: 31.5 in. (80 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Andrea Mantegna, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Agony in the Garden,” tempera on panel, painted by Giovanni Bellini, c. 1459–1465

    This Agony in the Garden was painted by Giovanni Bellini (1430–1516). He and his brother-in-law, Andrea Mantegna (see the previous slide), were two of the greatest artists of the early Renaissance. “Bellini was considered to have revolutionized Venetian painting, moving it toward a more sensuous and coloristic style. Through the use of clear, slow-drying oil paints, he created deep, rich tints and detailed shadings. His sumptuous coloring and fluent, atmospheric landscapes had a great effect on the Venetian painting school, especially on his pupils, Giorgione and Titian.”[1]

    “This painting depicts the common religious theme of Christ’s time of prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane, on the Mount of Olives, before being taken prisoner by Roman soldiers, as a result of Judas’ betrayal. In this version, Christ kneels in prayer at a rock mound while his disciples — Peter, James, and John — sleep on the ground behind him. Visible in the clouds above the kneeling Jesus is an angel, holding a cup and a plate of bread as symbols of Christ’s upcoming sacrifice. In the distance, beyond the three foreground figures, Roman soldiers wind their way along the road, with Judas in the lead.”[2]

    Bellini’s Agony in the Garden “is often compared to an earlier painting on the same subject (see previous slide) by his brother-in-law, Mantegna, whose landscape is, by comparison, dramatic and somewhat cramped, and heavily populated by angels and soldiers in close proximity.”[3] “For seven years, Bellini and Mantegna worked in close creative dialogue. Neither’s career or artistic development would have existed without the other, and without these works imbued with their creativity and innovation, Renaissance art, by the likes of Titian, Correggio, and Veronese, would not exist as it does today.”[4]

    … Height: 31.9 in. (81 cm), width: 50 in. (127 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Giovanni Bellini, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “Agony in the Garden,” oil on panel, painted by Pietro Perugino, 1483–1493

    Because his nickname characterizes him as coming from Perugia (the chief city of Umbria), Pietro Perugino (1448–1523), “born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance. Raphael was his most famous pupil. Perugino was one of the earliest Italian practitioners of oil painting.”[1]

    “Christ is portrayed in the center, kneeling in Gethsemane and receiving from an angel a divine chalice [which the gospels present as the agonizing, imminent completion of Jesus’ human destiny]. His figure forms a triangle with the three sleeping apostles at the bottom (from the left, John, Peter, and James); the triangle is connected to the painting’ sides by the symmetrical line of the hills. Behind Jesus is a lake landscape, a typical element of the Italian painting at the time, with a fortified city and an ancient bridge. At the sides, two groups of soldiers, led by Judas Iscariot, are closing in to arrest Jesus.”[2]

    “The garden at Gethsemane, a place whose name literally means ‘oil press,’ is located on a slope of the Mount of Olives just across the Kidron Valley from Jerusalem. Jesus frequently went to Gethsemane with His disciples to pray (John 18:2). The most famous events at Gethsemane occurred on the night before His crucifixion when Jesus was betrayed. Each of the Gospel writers describes the events of that night with slight variations, so reading the four accounts (Matthew 26:36–56; Mark 14:32–52; Luke 22:39–53; and John 18:1–11) will give an accurate picture of that momentous night in its entirety.”[3]

    … Height: 65.3 in. (166 cm), width: 67.3 in. (171 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Pietro Perugino, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “Garden of Gethsemane,” oil on panel, painted by Giorgio Vasari, c. 1570

    Giorgio Vasari’s Garden of Gethsemane “is an Italian Renaissance and Mannerist oil-on-panel painting created in 1570. It lives at the National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo.”[1] The Mannerist style can be seen in the richly varied forms and the composition’s flowing dynamism and tension. Judas (upper-left) leads the crowd who will arrest Christ, which is traditional iconography for this “agony in the garden” subject.

    Jesus, aware of Judas’ upcoming act of betrayal, walked to Gethsemane’s garden, on a slope of the Mount of Olives. There in the garden, separated from the Eleven, his three trusted disciples — Peter, James, and John — accompanied Christ but they fell asleep. The night before he was crucified, Jesus prayed to Father God. Having moved a distance from the three men to pray, he twice asked his Father to take from him the cup of wrath that he was about to drink. He was “overwhelmed with sorrow to the point of death” (Matthew 26:38 NIV) but God sent an angel (shown above) from heaven to strengthen him.

    “The events that occurred in the Garden of Gethsemane have reverberated down through the centuries. Even our language has been affected by these events, giving us such phrases as: ‘he who lives by the sword dies by the sword’ (Matt. 26:52); ‘the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak’ (Mark 14:38); and “sweating drops of blood’ (Luke 22:44). The most important impact of this night was our Savior’s willingness to die on the cross to pay the penalty for our sins. God ‘made Him who knew no sin, to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him’ (2 Corinthians 5:21). This is the gospel of Jesus Christ.”[1]

    … Height: 56 1/2 in. (143.5 cm), width: 50 in. (127 cm)
    … Photo source, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Giorgio Vasari, public domain, via Obelisk Art History
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “Christ on the Mount of Olives,” oil on panel, painted by Master of the Třeboň Altarpiece, 1380–1390

    The Master of the Třeboň Altarpiece who painted this altarpiece panel titled Christ on the Mount of Olives “was a Bohemian painter, active in Prague from 1380–1390. His name is derived from the Třeboň Altarpiece in the church of Saint Eligius at the Augustinian convent of Třeboň. The triptych [three-part altarpiece] depicts: (1) Christ on the Mount of Olives, (2) The Tomb of Christ, and (3) The Resurrection. Dated c. 1380, today it’s held at the Convent of St. Agnes branch of the National Gallery in Prague.”[1]

    “The quality of the Třeboň Altarpiece’s painting is without parallel and represents the technological pinnacle of European painting in the late 14th century. The panels are composed of spruce boards joined by pegs and covered on both sides with canvas. The composition is dominated by the striking diagonal of rock faces that divide the central figure of Christ from the two accompanying scenes: the sleeping apostles in the foreground and Judas [unhaloed], in the background, bringing the soldiers. The praying Christ has drops of bloody sweat (Luke 22:44) and the angel presents him with the Cup of Bitterness.”[2]

    What happened on the Mount of Olives?  “The Mount of Olives was the site of many events in the Bible. Jesus made several visits there. The Bible records his visiting there three times in the last week of His earthly life, and each time something of significance happened: (1) his triumphal entry; (2) his deliverance of the Olivet Discourse; and (3) the night he was betrayed.”[3]

    … Framed height: 52 in. (132 cm), width: 36 1/4 in. (92 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Master of Wittingau, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Agony in the Garden,” oil on canvas, painted by El Greco, c. 1608

    Agony in the Garden is one of many oil-on-canvas paintings by El Greco and his workshop. “The painter often returned to this subject of the Agony in the Garden. They can be seen in: Church of Santa María in Andújar, Spain (shown here); Diocesan Museum, Cuenca, Spain (shown here); Szépmûvészeti Múzeum, Budapest (shown here); and in Buenos Aires.

    “The Agony in the Garden was one of his most successful inventions. He painted the subject both as a horizontal [shown in eight more slides] and as a vertical composition [see previous paragraph]. This vertical version, in the Budapest museum, is not only smaller but also considerably more vertical, yielding a more heightened tension and augments the emotional impact of the scene. In his religious compositions and portraits, El Greco frequently repeated themes from his major works, with slight alterations, to meet different commissions. This Agony in the Garden is representative of his late years and mature style.”[1]

    “At the top of this work are Christ and an angel, with the apostles James, John, and Peter (left to right) sleeping at the bottom. Judas approaches in the right-hand background.”[2]

    El Greco’s representation of Jesus in agony at the Gethsemane garden was reproduced on a 1969 airmail postage stamp from Ajman (UAE), shown here.

    … Height: 66.9 in. (170 cm), width: 44.2 in. (112.5 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: El Greco, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Agony in the Garden,” oil on panel, painted by Luis de Morales, 1545

    Luis de Morales (1510–1586)  “Recognized as Spain’s greatest mannerist painter, Morales produced mostly small pictures that summoned inspiration from religious motifs.”[1] “He was a Spanish painter active during the Spanish Renaissance in the 16th century. Known as ‘El Divino,’ most of his work was of religious subjects. He was called by his contemporaries ‘The Divine Morales’ because of his skill, the shocking realism of his paintings.”[2]

    “As a master of altarpieces, Morales’s most important work was produced in the 1540s and 1550s.”[3] See many of his paintings of Jesus here.

    “Christ’s prayer on the Mount of Olives is the gospel episode that precedes his arrest and the beginning of his Passion and death on the cross. After his last supper with his disciples, Jesus withdrew with three of them — Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, James and John — to the nearby garden in Gethsemane. There appeared an angel from heaven, strengthening him. Being in an agony he prayed more earnestly; he sweated as if drops of blood were falling to the ground. When he rose from prayer and came to his disciples, he found them sleeping. Morales composed his Agony in the Garden using many of its usual representations, situating Jesus atop a small knoll where he kneels in prayer and contemplates the angel bearing a chalice and a cross, while James, Peter, and John sleep soundly in the foreground.”[4]

    … Height: 33 1/2 in. (85 cm), width: 25 3/4 in. (65.5 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Luis de Morales, public domain, via Museo del Prado
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Agony in the Garden,” pen-and-ink drawing, by Caspar Strauss, 1600–1633

    Very little can be found about Caspar Strauss (German, 1595–1663). This pen and black ink and gray wash (squared in red chalk) drawing was created by Strauss between 1600 and 1633.

    The gospels contain an account of the time the disciples and Jesus spent in the Garden of Gethsemane, just before Jesus was arrested. Caspar Strauss encouraged the viewer to identify with Jesus in his Agony in the Garden drawing. To heighten the emotional tension of this scene from Christ’s Passion, the artist compressed three events into this single scene. In the foreground the apostles have fallen asleep despite Jesus’ request that they keep watch. While Peter (front-right) lies clutching the handle of his sword in hand, he appears significantly labored in this pen-and-ink drawing.

    In the center of the drawing, haloed Jesus prays to God as we see the suggestion of soldiers in the left-background approaching for Jesus’ upcoming arrest. Strauss emphasized Jesus’ emotional isolation during prayer by showing him being approached by an angel accompanied by cherubim in clouds. The angel reaches out to Jesus while holding a cup in the other hand. “In Gethsemane’s garden Jesus prayed to his Father three times, saying, ‘My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will.’ (Matthew 26:39). A little later, Jesus prays, ‘My Father, if it is not possible for this cup to be taken away unless I drink it, may your will be done’ (v. :42). These prayers reveal Jesus’ mindset just before the crucifixion and His total submission to God’s will.”[1]

    … Height: 9 1/2 in. (24.2 cm), width: 7 1/4 in. (18.4 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Giotto, public domain, via The Met; Van Day Truex Fund, 2005

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  • “The Agony in the Garden,” tempera on wood, painted by Andrea Mantegna, 1457–1459

    Andrea Mantegna (1431–1506) “was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini,”[1] who is considered to have inspired Mantegna to paint this rendering of Agony in the Garden, painted between 1457 and 1459 [highlighted in the eleventh previous slide.

    “Christ prays before a group of cherubs who hold up the instruments of his torture and death. His disciple, Judas (right-center), who has betrayed him, leads a large band of soldiers down from Jerusalem to arrest him. Meanwhile, three of his other disciples sleep [Peter, left, wears a blue garment].

    “This painting reflects many of the artistic issues that would preoccupy Mantegna throughout his career. He was fascinated by the art of classical antiquity: the disciples here look like statues of Roman emperors in togas. One lies with his legs facing straight out at the viewer, a difficult pose to paint; Mantegna enjoyed experimenting with it for its ability to draw us into the picture.

    “He skilfully uses the landscape setting to tell the story in a single image; the march of the soldiers from the city gates creates drama and suggests the passage of time. He uses his favored fast-drying egg tempera paint (pigments bound with egg) to describe minute details like the individual bricks of the city walls.”[2]

    … Height: 24.8 in. (62.9 cm), width: 31.5 in. (80 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Andrea Mantegna, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” plate 2 of 24, engraved by Adriaen Collaert, c. 1580–c. 1590, after Maarten de Vos

    Adriaen Collaert (1560–1618) was a Flemish designer, engraver, and pupil of Pieter de Vos. “A member of a family of reproductive engravers working in Antwerp during the 16th and 17th centuries, Collaert was a print publisher, book illustrator, and reproductive engraver.”[1]

    This small engraved print (plate 2.) on paper is part of Collaert’s “Passion of Christ” series. You can find it in a print album with two series of 34 and 24 engravings, respectively, with scenes from the life and passion of Christ. This Last Supper engraving was heightened by the artist with metalic gold and silver. The second series was also probably designed by Adriaen Collaert; it follows several series of prints after Maarten de Vos’s designs (shown seven slides prior).

    The artist retains traditional iconography in his engraving: Christ and his disciples sit at a rectangular table filled with the Passover lamb, knives, bread, and wine cups; John, with closed eyes, rests on Christ’s lap; Peter, close to Jesus’ right arm, reveals deep concern after hearing that his Lord will be betrayed; Judas, front-left, holding in his coin purse, symbolic of his upcoming betrayal act, looks directly at Jesus who hands Judas a dipped piece of bread that identifies him as the betrayer. Judging by the disciples’ facial expressions, Jesus has just told the Twelve: “Truly I tell you, one of you will betray me.” (Matthew 26:21–24).

    … Height: 3.3 in. (85 mm), width: 2.6 in. (66 mm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam; purchased with support of F.G. Waller-Fonds
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” engraved etching, by Wenceslaus Hollar, 1670

    Wenceslaus Hollar (1607–1677) was a prolific and accomplished 17th-century Bohemian graphic artist. Having spent much of his life in England, he’s particularly noted for his engravings and etchings. By his life’s end, he’d produced about 2,700 unique etchings.

    Surrounded by his desciples, haloed Christ sits centered at a dinner table. In the background, a servant comes down a stairway to bring the main dish: the Passover lamb. Jesus, holding a piece of bread in his right hand over a goblet of wine, is about to give the bread to Judas who sits opposite the Lord who looks directly at Judas who turns his face away. Holding his purse in his right hand, Judas appears to be ready to get up and leave the room.

    Who was Judas Iscariot?  “Typically remembered for his betrayal of Jesus, Judas was one of the Twelve who lived with and followed Jesus for three years, witnessing Jesus’ ministry, teaching, and many miracles. He was the group treasurer and used this trusted position to steal from their resources (John 12:6). As a thief, according to Matthew 26:14–15, the chief priests paid him “thirty pieces of silver” to betray the Lord. Given the fact of his close proximity to Jesus during three years of ministry, it’s hard to imagine how he could follow through on such a dastardly betrayal.”[1]

    … Height: 5 1/2 in. (14 cm), width: 3 1/8 in. (8 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Wenceslaus Hollar, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography his other works of art

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  • “The Agony in the Garden,” manuscript in the Book of Hours, unknown artist, c. 1460

    Some of the greatest paintings and drawings of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance aren’t displayed on church and museum walls; instead, they shine forth from the pages of books. This 13th-century tempera colors, gold, and ink on parchment manuscript titled The Agony in the Garden is found in one of many “books of hours.” The author/creator of this Book of Hours and its manuscripts is unknown, however, they were created in Naples, Italy, c. 1460. These manuscripts, with their text in Latin, were among the most widely produced and used during the Middle Ages. They were decorated prayer books that not only enabled structured prayer time for their readers (over a day, a year, and a lifetime) but their creation reveals an increasing demand for private and personalized Christian devotion. See the entire manuscript collection of this Book of Hours, complimemts of The J Paul Getty Museum.

    Christ and his eleven remaining disciples entered the garden in Gethsemane. Jesus asked eight of the eleven apostles to sit while he went on into the garden to pray with Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, James and John, as we learn from the gospels (Matthew 26:36–46; Mark 14:32–42; Luke 22:39–46). Jesus asked the three to keep watch and pray that they wouldn’t fall into temptation. Alas, they fell asleep. Anticipating his crucifixion, Jesus prayed: “Father, if you are willing, take this cup from me; yet not my will, but yours be done” (Luke 22:42). In front of Jesus the artist presents an angel with open arms, as if to bring the Lord comfort.

    … Leaf height: 6 3/4 in. (17.1 cm), width: 4 3/4 in. (12.1 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: public domain, via The J Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles

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  • “The Agony in the Garden,” prayer book manuscript, by Simon Bening, c. 1525–1530

    Simon Bening (Flemish, c. 1483–1561)  “Through the dramatic miniatures in the prayer book that he illuminated for Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg, Bening encouraged the viewer to identify with Jesus in his Passion. The Agony in the Garden, painted with tempera colors, gold paint, and gold leaf, opens the sequence of devotional texts interspersed with Passion miniatures. To heighten the emotional tension, the artist compressed three events into one scene. In the foreground the apostles have fallen asleep despite Jesus’ request that they keep watch. In the center of the image, Jesus prays to God, while in the background the soldiers already approach to arrest him. Bening emphasized Jesus’ emotional isolation as he prays by showing him separated from the apostles by a fence and a fallen tree. Before Jesus, an angel kneels, offering the cup that symbolizes his acceptance of death on the cross.

    “The naturalistic depiction of the dark night sets the mood, creating a dramatic setting for the events. The glow from Jesus’ halo in the center provides a spotlight on his face, while in the background the soldiers’ torches — painted with tiny dots of gold paint — draw attention to the imminent danger. Even the naturalistic trees flanking the central action increase the drama as they restrict the space around the central figure of Jesus.”[1]

    The detailed account of this garden agony scene are presented in these three gospels: Matthew 26:36–46; Mark 14:32–42; Luke 22:39–46.

    … Leaf height: 6 5/8 in. (16.8 cm), width: 41/2 in. (11.4 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: public domain, via The J Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Agony in the Garden,” manuscript in the Bourbon Book of Hours, unknown artist, 1544

    Some of the greatest paintings and drawings of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance aren’t displayed on church and museum walls; instead, they shine forth from the pages of books. This 14th-century tempera colors and gold paint on parchment manuscript titled The Agony in the Garden is found in one of many “books of hours.” The author/creator of this Bourbon Hours and its manuscripts is unknown, however, they were created in Paris, France, in 1544. These manuscripts, with their text in Latin, were among the most widely produced and used during the Middle Ages. They were decorated prayer books that not only enabled structured prayer time for their readers (over a day, a year, and a lifetime) but their creation reveals an increasing demand for private and personalized Christian devotion. See the entire manuscript collection of this Book of Hours, complimemts of The J Paul Getty Museum.

    To see numerous other “books of hours,” created from 1300 to 1550, The J Paul Getty Museum provides this collection of enlargeable images.

    This artist presents the kneeling figure of Christ, praying on the Mount of Olives, prior to his arrest and ensuing Passion. He’s accompanied by his haloed apostles, Peter (right), James, and John, who, despite Christ’s repeated pleas to keep watch and pray, had fallen asleep. According to Luke’s gospel: “An angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him. And being in anguish, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground” (Luke 22:43–44).

    … Leaf height: 5 5/8 in. (14.3 cm), width: 3 3/16 in. (8.1 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: public domain, via The J Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles

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  • “Christ on the Mount of Olives,” engraved print, by Albrecht Dürer, 1508

    Christ on the Mount of Olives is a tiny engraving, only 4.5 inches tall, that Albrecht Dürer, created in 1508. It’s part of his series of engravings called the “Small Engraved Passion,” which depicts Jesus’ last days when he and his disciples went to the Mount of Olives in the garden called Gethsemane, near Jerusalem, so he could pray to Father God. Dürer has Christ throwing upward both arms in a gesture of despair as an angel fortifies him, reaffirming his mission while on earth. When Christ returned to his three nearby disciples, he found them asleep.

    This is sheet No. 2 of Dürer’s “Small Engraved Passion.” Herein, he’s put James, John, and Peter (front-right) asleep in front of Jesus. While Peter lies with his sword in hand, he appears significantly labored in this copper-plate engraving. Behind Jeses, the artist placed a crowd of people, led by Judas, who approach Jesus in the garden. Dürer effectively depicts Christ’s weariness, dismay, and terror the night before his execution. It was a moment of agonizing drama that apparently appealed to Dürer who’d become a devout but questioning Christian who lived in an era of religious upheaval and reform.

    You can see, compliments of National Gallery of Art, how Georg Mack the Elder, in the 1580s, later attractively added watercolor, and gold and silver to this tiny Dürer engraving.

    … Height: 4.5 in. (115 mm), width: 2.8 in. (71 mm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Albrecht Dürer, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” engraved print, by Benoît Thiboust, 1629–1719

    Very little information is available about the life and history of Benoît Thiboust, a Belgian engraver (1660–1719).

    This Last Supper engraving follows a traditional compositional formula: Christ, wearing a radiant halo looks upward, is in the center of the artwork, as he and the Twelve sit at a rectangular dinner table; young John rests his head on the table while older Peter is at the Lord’s right hand; the apostles are barefoot because Jesus had already humbled himself by washing each man’s feet; Judas, front-left, holding his coin purse in his left hand, intentionally turns his head away from Jesus.

    Thiboust’s print presents the moment when Jesus decared that one of his apostles with him at the dinner table would betray him that evening. In Matthew’s gospel, we learn the exact words of warning that Jesus spoke to them: 21“And while they were eating, he said, ‘Truly I tell you, one of you will betray me.’ 22They were very sad and began to say to him one after the other, ‘Surely you don’t mean me, Lord?’ 23Jesus replied, ‘The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me will betray me. 24The Son of Man will go just as it is written about him. But woe to that man who betrays the Son of Man! It would be better for him if he had not been born.” (Matt. 26:21).

    See hundreds more Last Supper artwork varieties on this page; find numerous Last Supper engraved prints here.

    … Height: 8.3 in. (210 mm), width: 6.6 in. (168 mm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
    … The artist’s biography could not be located; you can see his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” engraving, by Cornelis Cort, 1578, after Livio Agresti

    Cornelis Cort (1533–1578), “was a Dutch engraver and draughtsman. He spent his last 12 years in Italy, where he was known as Cornelio Fiammingo.”[1]

    The engraver intentionally included in the background, behind the colonaides, the previous Last Supper scene in which Jesus washed all of his apostles’ feet (shown here). Note: Warren Camp has compiled this list of twenty-one sequential events, leading up to and following the Last Supper. Each event, such as “Jesus Washes His Disciples’ Feet,” “Judas Identified as the Betrayer,” and “Departing the Upper Room,” is presented in the order in which it occurred; specific Bible references are included.

    In his Last Supper, Cort has put Christ inside a room with twisted columns, sitting with his apostles at a round table during his last supper. Centered, wearing a brilliant halo, Christ puts his left hand on young John’s head and his other hand on the Passover lamb that fills a bowl at the table’s center. Peter and Christ look into one another’s eyes while Judas Iscariot (front-right), holding a coin purse in his left hand, looks toward the viewer most uncomfortably.

    Here are the Scriptures that document details of the Last Supper: Matthew 26:17–30, Mark 14:12–32; Luke 22:7–38; John 13:2–38.

    … Height: 1 ft. 9 in. (531 mm), width: 1 ft. 2 in. (356 mm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Cornelis Cort, public domain, via Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” etching, by Jan Gillisz. van Vliet, 1628–1637

    Jan Gillisz. van Vliet (1605–1668), “was a Dutch Golden Age painter who worked fromVliet, Utrecht, Netherlands. Born in Leiden where he became a Rembrandt pupil, his paintings are no longer attributed to him with any certainty. Today he is known only for his drawings and prints.”[1]

    This Last Supper etching depicts the exact moment when Jesus identified Judas Iscariot as the betrayer, when he gave Judas a piece of dipped bread.

    Without using candles as the usual light source for a supper scene, the artist instead masterfully and dramatically lit everyone at the dinner table, including the Passover lamb that was presented on a platter. In this attention-getting presentation of the Last Supper, Gillisz highlights key facets of this essential Bible account. We learn in John’s gospel that “Jesus was troubled in spirit and testified, ‘Very truly I tell you, one of you is going to betray me’ (John 13:21). At a loss to know which of them he meant, his disciples stared at one another until young John leaned back against Jesus and asked him who the betrayer was. “Jesus answered, ‘It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish.’ Then, dipping the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot” (v. 26).

    See hundreds more Last Supper artwork varieties on this page; find numerous Last Supper engraved prints here.

    … Height: 8.4 in. (213 mm), width: 6.7 in. (169 mm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” oil on canvas, painted by Paolo Veronese, c. 1585

    The Last Supper  “Paolo Veronese belonged to a circle of influential and important painters in sixteenth-century Venice. Born Paolo Caliari, he became known as “Veronese” after his birthplace, Verona. At the age of fourteen, Veronese was apprenticed to an established Venetian painter, but he was more influenced by the monumental works of Raphael and Michelangelo. He arrived in Venice at the age of twenty-five and spent the rest of his lifetime there, painting altarpieces and decorative cycles in chapels and palaces.”[1]

    “In the eighties, Paolo returned once again to the theme of the Lord’s Supper in this canvas painted around 1585 for the Venetian church of Santa Sofia, where it was until 1811 but now is in Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan. Here the painter substantially modified the compositional structure he had adopted in the past for similar pictures. In particular, he changed the location of Christ, who no longer dominates the centre of the scene but is placed on the left-hand edge of the canvas. In addition, the long table is now set diagonally instead of being viewed from the front. And, the triumphant architectural setting of the feasts he painted in the sixties and seventies has vanished completely and the event now takes place in modest surroundings, emphasizing Christ’s message of humility and poverty.”[2]

    … Height: 7.2 ft. (220 cm), width: 17.2 ft. (523 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: public domain via Web Gallery of Art; Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” fresco, painted by Pietro Lorenzetti, c. 1320

    Pietro Lorenzetti (or Pietro Laurati, c. 1280–1348) “was an Italian painter, active between c.1306 and 1345. Little is known of his life. Many of his religious works may still be seen in churches and museums in the Tuscan towns of Arezzo, Assisi, and Siena.

    “Lorenzetti’s Last Supper has Christ and his disciples seated around an awkwardly angled table within a brightly shining rotunda under a night sky festooned with shooting stars and a crescent moon. To the left of the holy diners is a narrow kitchen; in it is a man doing dishes, a woman at his shoulder, a dog licking the last scraps from a plate, and a cat asleep.”[1] The artist adds a richly decorated pavilion with a complicated hexagonal ceiling and sculpted angels. His cat may have inspired Ghirlandaio to include a cat in his subsequent 1486 Last Supper painting, which you’ll see in six more slides.

    Above, the Sienese painter retains traditional iconography in this 14th-century painting: Christ and his disciples sit around a dinner table filled with knives, bread, and wine cups; young John, with closed eyes, rests his head on Christ’s right shoulder; Peter, on Jesus’ other side, shows concern after hearing that his Lord is about to be betrayed; Judas, front-left, sitting without a halo, looks directly at Jesus who is handing him the piece of bread that identifies him as Christ’s betrayer, as is revealed in John’s eyewitness gospel account: John 13:25–27.

    … Dimensions not provided
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Pietro Lorenzetti, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” engraved print, by Zacharias Dolendo, 1596–1598, after Karel van Mander

    Little is known about Zacharias Dolendo (1561–1601), a Dutch reproductive engraver, printer, and draftsman who worked in Leiden, Netherlands.

    This Last Supper “Passion of Christ” (seriers title) engraving is from a series of thirteen prints, plus a title print, created by Dolendo and published by Jacques de Gheyn II (mentioned on object). It follows a traditional compositional formula: Christ, centered at the rear of the artwork, sits with his Twelve around a dinner table in a large pavilion, during a supper that was catered and observed by many; young John rests his head on Christ’s chest while older Peter is at the Lord’s right hand; the apostles are barefoot because Jesus had already humbled himself by washing each man’s feet; Judas, front-left, holding his coin purse in his right hand, intentionally turns his head away from Jesus and prepares to depart the room.

    You can see on this list the Last Supper’s twenty-one sequential events. Each event, such as “Jesus Washes His Disciples’ Feet,” “Judas Identified as the Betrayer,” “The Fate of the Betrayer,” and “Judas Leaves” is presented in the order in which it occurred scripturally; specific Bible references are included.

    See hundreds more Last Supper artwork varieties on this page; find numerous Last Supper engraved prints here.

    … Height: 6 in. (150 mm), width: 4 in. (102 mm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: The Britich Museum
    … The artist’s biography could not be located; you can see his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” oil on oak panel, painted by Pieter Pourbus, 1548

    Pieter Pourbus (c. 1523–1584) was a Flemish Renaissance painter, draughtsman, cartographer, surveyor, and civil engineer. He’s known primarily for his religious and portrait paintings.

    The Last Supper, dated 1548 (as was inscribed atop the door jamb header), “is the earliest known painting of this artist. It reveals a monstrous figure with claws and a skull (possibly representing Avarice or Treachery) entering the room from a doorway at the right, going directly toward Judas who has begun to exit, purse in hand.“[1] Every apostle at the table is active or appears concerned with what has just happened in that room. One apostle holds departing Judas’ cloak while a young servant picks up the stool that Judas had hastily knocked to the floor.

    What happened during the Last Supper?  “The events that occurred in the ‘upper room’ are described in Matthew 26:1–29, Mark 14:12–25, Luke 22:7–20, and John 13:1–38. During the last hours that Jesus spent with His beloved friends, He ate with them, instituted the New Covenant in His blood, gave them last-minute instructions and encouragement, and prayed His ‘high priestly prayer’ over them.”[2]

    … Height: 18.3 in. (46.5 cm), width: 24.8 in. (63 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement:
          Pieter Pourbus, public domain, via Web Gallery of Art; Groeninge Museum, Bruges, Belgium
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” fresco, painted by Andrea del Sarto, 1520–1525

    The Last Supper   Andrea del Sarto’s fresco documents the artist’s familiarity with Leonardo’s fresco in Milan (shown in our Album #12 and in this video). In each fresco, every apostle is on the same side of the table as Jesus. But unlike many other Last Supper renditions, del Sarto: (1) focused mostly on the offering of the bread; no chalice or wine glasses are visible on his dinner table and (2) placed Judas sitting between Peter, to his right, and to the left of Jesus. “Troubled in spirit” over what awaited him, Jesus predicted his betrayal (John 13:21). Then, Christ Jesus, without looking at Judas, served his betrayer bread: “As soon as Judas had taken the bread, he went out. And it was night” (v. 30). While history’s greatest injustice was underway, Jesus declared, “Now the Son of Man is glorified and God is glorified in him” (v. 31). In a few hours, the disciples would experience panic, defeat, and dejection. But Jesus saw God’s plan unfolding as it should.

    Del Sarto’s fresco presents Apostle John (to Jesus’ right) ushering us into this holy dinner. As young John reaches out with his right hand, Jesus gently covers it, revealing his affection for the youngest apostle. And, painted above del Sarto’s Last Supper representation, we see a separate sunset scene, revealing two standing individuals in a balcony, looking down upon the Last Supper event. The biblical account, which happened the night before Christ’s crucifixion, is found in these five New Testament books: (Matthew 26:17–30; Mark 14:12–26; Luke 22:7–30; John 13:18–30; and 1 Cor. 11:23–26).

    … Height: 17 ft. 3 in. (525 cm), width: 28 ft. 6 in. (871 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Andrea del Sarto, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” fresco, painted by Pietro Perugino, 1493–1496

    Pietro Perugino  “Born Pietro Vannucci, he was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school. He developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance and was one of the earliest Italian practitioners of oil painting. Raphael was his most famous pupil.”[1]

    Perugino’s Last Supper is similar in composition to Ghirlandaio’s second Last Supper (shown on Album #8). Both frescoes “depict Jesus and the apostles during the Last Supper, with Judas sitting separately on the near side of the table, as is common in Last Supper depictions in Christian art. This is considered one of Perugino’s best works. Originally attributed to Raphael, later a pupil of Perugino with very similar styles, it was eventually realized to be a work by Perugino.”[2] Look closely: To clarify the identity of the apostles, Perugino inscribed their names on the wooden riser of the dining platform.

    Note that Perugino traditionally depicts Judas, albeit on a lower level than everyone else, unhaloed and holding his bag of coins. He looks away from Jesus to towards the viewer. In addition, young John seems to be sleeping on the table, based on interpretations by Perugino and other artists of the actual text of John 13:23 NIV: “One of them, the disciple whom Jesus loved, was reclining next to him.” Scholars believe that this verse refers to the tradition of leaning on one’s left arm while lying in a reclining position when eating, a custom of the ancient Romans who’d lie on long couches called triclinia (shown here and here) when dining.

    … Height: 14 ft. 5 in. (440 cm), width: 26 ft. 2 in. (800 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Pietro Perugino, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” oil on canvas, painted by Valentin de Boulogne, 1625–1626

    Valentin de Boulogne’s The Last Supper is a painted depiction of one of the canonical subjects of Renaissance art — the last meal that Jesus Christ had eaten with his disciples. This artist, one of the great figures of 17-century French art, was certainly a follower of Caravaggio. Herein he explores the full range of the distressed disciples’ reactions to Christ’s announcement that one of them will betray him. We see Judas (foreground-left) surreptitiously clinging to and concealing his bag of thirty silver coins, his reward for betraying the Lord.

    “Beside Christ, John rests his head on the table and sleeps, in keeping with popular iconographic tradition. Meanwhile Peter, to the left of Christ, raises his hand in a gesture of astonishment. The painting is one of the masterpieces of Valentin’s maturity. His compositional scheme shows classical influence, with the solemn and monumental figure of Christ at the exact centre of the scene, and the symmetric composition around him, with the apostles distributed regularly around the table. Yet the Caravaggesque style, an essential component of this painting, is perfectly evident in the realism of the apostles’ hands.”[1] To appreciate the essence of the Last Supper account, watch this highly acclaimed 2020 movie titled “The Gospel of John.”

    … Height: 54.7 in. (139 cm), width: 90.5 in. (230 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Valentin de Boulogne, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” fresco painted by Domenico Ghirlandaio, 1480

    To begin with, this painting is remarkably similar to the very first Last Supper painting by Florentine artist, Taddeo Gaddi, in 1340 (shown here). Here in Domenico Ghirlandaio’s The Last Supper, “Jesus and the disciples aren’t particularly characterized but seem peaceful and rather at ease; even Judas, who though seated on his own in front of Christ according to tradition, has a serene countenance and composed posture. The figures are sitting isolated, next to each other in a row, and aren’t connected in any inner way. Plates, decanters, glasses, saltcellars, and knives are carefully arranged in front of each table-guest, as are the bread and cherries. It might even be the realistic and serene representation of a Florentine table of the period.”[1]

    Surrounded by his apostles, Jesus in the center announces that one of them will betray him. Judas Iscariot’s figure is easily recognizable, separated from everyone on the opposite side of the table, holding his bag of coins that represent the reward he received for his upcoming betrayal of Jesus. Just as Andrea del Castagno had painted, 3 to 4 decades earlier in his Last Supper fresco (shown in Warren Camp’ Album #9), Judas is sitting on a short stool, seeming lower than the others. Sitting behind him on the floor, Ghirlandaio painted a cat that represents deceipt and treachery. Young John tenderly sleeps in front of Jesus. Easy to see, every person’s gesture is uniform, totally lacking dramatic expression. All but Judas wear a halo.

    … Height: 13 ft. 4 in. (400 cm), width: 26 ft. 6 in. (810 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Domenico Ghirlandaio, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” panel painting by Hans Leonhard Schäufelein, 1515

    It’s challenging to identify most of the subjects in Hans Schäufelein’sThe Last Supper panel painting. Herein, four people have been traditionally presented: Haloed Jesus sitting at the table’s center; young John, sleeping in front of Jesus; Peter, sitting very close to Jesus’ right shoulder while holding a dinner knife, as a testimony to him being prepared to protect the Lord; and Judas, standing to the right, holding his symbolic coin bag in his left hand while raising his right hand as if to announce his departure after Jesus identified him as the betrayer. In total there are at least thirteen people joining Jesus at this Passover celebration; presumably the artist atypically included a few standing servants.

    “The Last Supper is what we call the last meal Jesus ate with His disciples before His betrayal and arrest. It was more than Jesus’ last meal; it was a Passover meal as well. One of the important moments of the Last Supper is Jesus’ command to remember what He was about to do on behalf of all mankind: shed His blood on the cross thereby paying the debt of our sins (Luke 22:19). In addition to predicting His suffering and death for our salvation (Luke 22:15–16), Jesus also used the Last Supper to imbue the Passover with new meaning, institute the New Covenant, establish an ordinance for the church, and foretell Peter’s denial of Him (Luke 22:34) and Judas Iscariot’s betrayal (Matt. 26:21–24). Also during the Last Supper, Jesus taught the principles of servanthood and forgiveness as He washed His disciples’ feet.”[1] … See twenty-six “Jesus’ Foot Washing” masterpieces in Warren Camp’s Album #8.

    … Height: 50.7 in. (129 cm), width: 69.2 in. (176 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Hans Leonhard Schäufelein, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” watercolor on paper, painted by James Tissot, 1886–1894

    [ James Tissot (French, 1836–1902): “The Communion of the Apostles (La communion des apôtres),” 1886–1894. Brooklyn Museum, 00.159.223 (Photo: Brooklyn Museum, 00.159.223_PS1.jpg). Be sure to see Tissot’s “Life of Our Lord Jesus Christ” collection of 124 watercolors selected from a set of 350 that depict detailed scenes from the New Testament.]

    This artist painted in Paris alongside Claude Monet and Edouard Manet, often painting fashionable women of Paris. But, in 1885, he experienced a renewal of his faith and spent the rest of his life painting biblical scenes. Learn more about Tissot’s “The Life of Christ” exhibition at Brooklyn Museum of Art.

    The Ideal “Last Supper” Closer in This Album  While the opening Last Supper painting in this album (shown here) features Tissot’s depiction of the Last Supper’s preparatory scene in which Jesus and the Twelve stand together in reverance of the Passover meal they’re about to share, this closer has Jesus living out Luke 22:19: “And he took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, ‘This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me.’”

    Additionally, Tissot emphasized the devotion that Jesus’ eleven apostles had for their Lord by having many of them clasp their hands solemnly and prayerfully, prior to receiving and eating the unleavened bread.

    … Height: 9 7/16 in. (24 cm), width: 13 1/2 in. (34.3 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, and museum details: Brooklyn Museum of Art; purchased by public subscription
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

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  • “The Last Supper,” engraving by Marcantonio Raimondi, 1515–1516, after Raphael

    Marcantonio Raimondi (1480–1534), often called simply Marcantonio, was an Italian engraver, known for being the first important printmaker whose body of work consists largely of prints copying paintings. A prolific engraver who published more than 300 prints, he lived in Bologna, Italy, when both Dürer and Michelangelo were working there. He often copied their styles to improve his own work, as was common practice among artists at the time.

    “The source for the print is thought to be Raphael’s drawing of the same subject in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle. Marcantonio collaborated with Raphael for about a decade from 1510, basing his engravings on Raphael’s drawings for frescos or paintings. Since Raphael made no fresco or painting of this subject, this drawing may have been specifically made as a model for Marcantonio’s engraving. The collaboration between the two artists was mutually beneficial since Marcantonio’s engravings helped to spread Raphael’s fame throughout Europe.

    The Last Supper  In a room with carved-marble panelled walls and a tiled floor, Christ sits facing the viewer at the centre of a long table, with six of his disciples seated on either side, taking up three sides of a long table. Behind Christ is an arched window supported by two pairs of columns, beyond which can be seen a hilly landscape. On the tablecloth are a dish of meat, knives, small loaves of bread, cups, and a jug, bowl, and vase. Propped up against the bench to the right is the small empty tablet, representing Raimondi’s signature. Below the table the disciples’ feet of are visible.”[1]

    … Height: 11.7 in. (29.7 cm), width: 17 in. (43.3 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Marcantonio Raimondi, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

    Return to the “Peter Masterpieces” album’s opening page  or  to the top of this page.

  • “The Last Supper,” etching by Nicolas Cochin, mid-17th century

    Nicolas Cochin was born in Paris where he studied engraving and rose quickly to success and fame.

    Cochin’s depiction of The Last Supper shows the Twelve sitting with Jesus around a rectangular dinner table with a tablecloth. Traditionally, young John, “the disciple whom Jesus loved” (John 13:23), is seen herein leaning on or lying in front of haloed Christ’s chest, asleep or simply resting. The artist appears to have given John added emphasis, putting him near the center of this etching, between Jesus above him and Judas Iscariot directly opposite Jesus. In his left hand, Judas (front-right) traditionally holds his moneybag out of sight. Cochin has Judas staring at a disciple to his left in a somewhat confrontational manner.

    The biblical account of the Last Supper, which happened the night before Christ’s crucifixion, is found in these five New Testament books: Matt. 26:17–30, Mark 14:12–32; Luke 22:7–38; John 13:2–38. Warren Camp has compiled this list of twenty-one sequential events, leading up to and following the Last Supper. Each event, such as “Jesus Washes His Disciples’ Feet,” “Judas Identified as the Betrayer,” “The Fate of the Betrayer,” “Judas Leaves,” and “Departing the Upper Room,” is presented in the order in which it occurred; specific Bible references are included.

    … Height: 5 3/8 in. (13.6 cm), width: 7 13/16 in. (19.8 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: The Met; the Elisha Whittelsey Collection, the Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1951
    … The artist’s biography could not be found.

    Return to the “Peter Masterpieces” album’s opening page  or  to the top of this page.

  • “The Last Supper,” engraving on paper, by Raffaello Sanzio Morghen, 1800, after Leonardo da Vinci

    Raphael Sanzio Morghen (1758–1833) was an Italian engraver. “Born in Naples, apparently to a German family of engravers, he received his earliest instructions from his father (an engraver). His reputation became great enough to induce the artists of Florence to recommend him to the grand duke as a person fit to engrave the Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci.[1] Morghen’s engraved print (above) was designed after Leonardo’s fresco; the intermediary draughtsman was Teodoro Matteini. Compare Morghen’s Last Supper with Leonardo’s, which is featured on Warren Camp’ next album, #11.

    Closeup of Judas, Peter, and John in Morghen's 'Last Supper' engraving

    Click to enlarge this detail
    of Judas, Peter, and John.

    Who was Judas Iscariot?  When you click the thumbnail image (right), the enlargement reveals Judas’ characteristics: darkly complected, worried expression, holding his coin purse. Behind Judas’ back, Peter holds a knife. In keeping with New Testament accounts of the Last Supper and subsequent events, Peter’s holding a knife at the table is thought to symbolize his upcoming attack on one who arrested Christ. When the contingent of troops and officers caught up with Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane, Peter lost his temper: “Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus.” (John 18:10). You can find out more about Judas in this detailed Scripture-based account. The engraved footer that begins with “Amen dico” represents this Bible verse: “Truly I say to you that one of you is about to betray me” (Matthew 26:21). Beneath it, the engraver includes this dedication: “Ferdinand III of Austria … Great Duke of Tuscany.”

    Here are the Scriptures that document details of the Last Supper: Matt. 26:17–30, Mark 14:12–32; Luke 22:7–38; John 13:2–38.

    … Dimensions from The Met — Height: 22 1/16 in. (56.1 cm), width: 38 1/8 in. (96.8 cm)
    … Photo source, license, attribution, museum details, and image enlargement: Raffaello Sanzio Morghen, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
    … The artist’s short biography; his other works of art

    Return to the “Peter Masterpieces” album’s opening page  or  to the top of this page  or  to the start of Warren Camp’s next page: Album: #13.



“Peter” Has Indeed Left an Artistic Mark in Our World

In these albums, see more “Peter Masterpieces” created from renowned art masters from around the world.

 Album 1:  “Peter, Alone” (29 images)
 Album 2:  “Calling Apostle Peter” (12@), “Preaching the Gospel” (6@), and “Powerful Pentecost” (15@)
 Album 3:  “Peter’s Presence with Other Apostles” (28@) and “Walking on Water” (6@)
 Album 4:  “Receiving the Keys of Heaven” (15@), “Transfiguration” (8@), and “Tribute Money” (8@, 6@)
 Album 5:  “Peter Heals People” (23@) and “The Miraculous Catch of Fish” (6@, 7@)
 Album 6:  “Peter Gets Freed from Prison” (30@)
 Album 7:  “Miscellaneous New Testament Depictions of Peter” (35@)
 Album 8:  “Christ Washes Peter’s Feet” (26@)
 Album 9:  “The Last Supper — Part 1” (33@ of 122)
 Album 10:  “The Last Supper — Part 2” (33@ of 122)
 Album 11:  “The Last Supper — Part 3” (34@ of 122)
 Album 12:  “The Last Supper — Part 4” (32@ of 122)
 Album 13:  “Christ’s Agony in the Garden” (32@)
 Album 14:  “Peter Cuts Off Malchus’ Ear” (11@) and “Peter Denies Christ” (23@)
 Album 15:  “Repentant Peter” (13@) and “Peter’s Martyrdom/Crucifixion” (18@)
 Album 16:  “Altarpieces” (3@) and “Stained-Glass Windows Featuring Peter” (14@)




Intro Videos: “First Peter” and “Second Peter”

     Watch this summary video of “First Peter” created by The Bible Project.

     Here’s the “Second Peter” summary video created by The Bible Project.


•  Special Presentation: See more than sixty of Warren Camp’s “Peter Masterpieces” on this 4-minute video clip titled “Holy Week through 100 Paintings,” produced by Christian Art.